Examination is an important aspect of education process because it is
the stage at which learner’s knowledge; skills, abilities and
competences are assessed and judged based on their performance. The
outcome of the judgment is used for diagnosing as well as placement of
students in the appropriate position/level. Beating the due process
leads to examination malpractice. Hence, examination malpractice is as
old as examination itself. The origin of examination malpractice dates
back to the first schools. The temptation for students to cheat and
teachers to be bribed has been an ever present problem. The process
involves a student gaining an unfair advantage over other students
through assistance from teachers or having unauthorized access to
testing materials. Those who are caught face stiff punishments like
expulsion from school or the termination of employment. It is most
prevalent in higher education like colleges of education, polytechnics
and universities. Before now when examination was still valued,
students were always ready and determined to burn their midnight
candles for any examination while their parents were ready to provide
them with all modalities to enable their child pass their examination
without any stress. However, the rate at which examination malpractice
occur in Nigeria educational system is highly disturbing and therefore
need prompt attention by all stakeholders because the phenomenon has
both moral and legal implications. We live in a world where hard work
does not longer pay as many tend to obtain or achieve unmerited
success because of the credence given to results/certificates instead
of the competence of an individual. Examination malpractice is however
defined as anything done by stakeholders who includes examination
administrators, teachers, parents, or students that is likely to
render the assessment or examination ineffective or useless. For Umoru
(2005) examination malpractice is any fraudulent activity that is
aimed at getting a better result than the candidate’s actual
intelligence and performance. It can also be regarded as any ungodly
act exhibited before, during and after any examination by either the
typist, students, invigilators, examiners, principals, communities,
teachers/course lecturers etc. examination malpractice is also seen as
any dishonest or deceitful act by a candidate(s) or any person(s) to
contravene existing rules and regulations in order to obtain undue
reward for oneself or to disfavor anyone in any form of assessment of
examination. Simply put, when rules and regulations controlling the
conduct of an examination is violated, it is said that examination
malpractice has been committed. Hence, any improper action carried out
before, during and after the examinations with the intention of
cheating or having advantage constitute examination malpractice
(Obidigbo, 2011)
Examination malpractice is one of the greatest problems which the
Nigerian educational sector is passing through today. In recent times,
this problem of examination malpractice has generated more serious
discussion among the Nigeria literate population than any other
educational issue. Examination malpractice takes different shapes and
forms in the institutions of higher learning in Nigeria such as
sorting, leakages of papers, effect of bottom power, giraffe method,
exchange of booklet, etc. the rate of examination malpractice at all
levels of education from primary to tertiary institution have assumed
such frightening proportion that some harsh decision like the
cancellation of examinations or results, seizure of results and
expulsion of culprits from school have been taken to curb this odious
behavior. The Federal Military Government however promulgated
“examination malpractice Decree 20” in 1984. The decree prescribes
heavy punishment for offenders like twenty one (21) years imprisonment
but in spite of the stiff pen


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